Wir lieben Krebs, Malaria, Parasiten und Viren — Part II.


Nach 18 Monaten — (11. Juli 2014) — intensiver Recherche bin ich überzeugt, daß es wirklich etwas gegen Krebs und Malaria gibt. Daran hat sich bis heute (14. Februar 2016) nichts geändert; vielmehr ist meine Überzeugung zu einer Gewissheit geworden, die auch wissenschaftlich überprüfbar ist!

Seit über 40 Jahren intensiv erforscht, um des Schand-Gewinnes Willen  verheimlicht und bereits vielfältig patentiert.

青蒿 Qinghao

kannst du selber im Garten, auf dem Balkon oder der Fensterbank pflanzen und die getrockneten Blätter als Tee oder zur Nahrungsergänzung verwenden. — Du kannst freilich auch von unserer Farm in Afrika die bereits getrockneten Blätter käuflich erwerben und damit unsere Projekte unterstützen.

Die Wieder-Entdeckerin Tu Youyou 屠呦呦

china-tu-youyou-large-169

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tu_Youyou

https://seidenmacher.wordpress.com/dreh-dich-blos-nicht-um-schau-schau-das-krebs-gespenst-geht-um-dumm-dumm/

Dr. Duke’s
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals in: Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) — Annual Mugwort (GRIN), Annual Wormwood (GRIN), 青蒿Qinghao, Sweet Annie, Sweet Wormwood (GRIN)

Chemicals:

1,8-CINEOLE Leaf 2,360 – 6,600 ppm DUKE1992A

3,3,6-TRIMETHYL-HEPTA-1,5-DIEN-4-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

3,5-DIHYDROXY-6,7,3′,4′-TETRAMETHOXYFLAVONE Plant: DUKE1992A

3-METHYL-PINOCARVONE Plant: DUKE1992A

6,7,3′,4′-TETRA-O-METHYL-QUERCETAGETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A

ALPHA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 1,345 – 3,760 ppm DUKE1992A

ARTEANNUIN-A Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEANNUIN-B Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISIA-ALCOHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISIA-KETONE Leaf 2,200 – 16,000 ppm DUKE1992A

ARTEMISIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISILACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISININ Flower 100 – 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A Leaf 100 – 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A

ARTEMISINOL Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISITINE Plant: DUKE1992A

ARTEMISYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

BETA-ARTEANNUAN Plant: DUKE1992A

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

BETA-FARNESENE Plant: DUKE1992A

BETA-PINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

BETA-SELINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

BORNEOL Plant: DUKE1992A

CAMPHENE Plant: DUKE1992A

CAMPHENE-HYDRATE Leaf 1,000 – 2,820 ppm DUKE1992A

CAMPHOR Leaf 1,720 – 6,460 ppm DUKE1992A

CAPILLENE Plant 80 ppm; DUKE1992A

CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A

COUMARIN Plant: DUKE1992A

CUMINALDEHYDE Leaf: DUKE1992A

DELTA-CADINENE Plant: DUKE1992A

DEOXYARTEMISININ Plant: DUKE1992A

EO Leaf  8,400 – 23,500 ppm DUKE1992A

GAMMA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A

HENTRIACONTANYLTRIACONTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A

HUMULENE Plant: DUKE1992A ISOARTEMISIA-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

ISOARTEMISIA-ALCOHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

ISOARTEMISIA-KETONE Plant 3,400 ppm; DUKE1992A

MENTHOL Plant: DUKE1992A

METHYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

MYRCENOL Plant: DUKE1992A

NONACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

O-CYMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

OCIMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

OCTACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A

P-CYMENE Plant: DUKE1992A

PINOCARVEOL Plant: DUKE1992A

PINOCARVYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A

QINGHAOSU-IV Plant: DUKE1992A

QUERCETAGETIN-6,7,3′,4′-TETRAMETHYLETHER Plant: DUKE1992A

QUERCETAGETIN-6,7,4′-TRIMETHYLETHER Plant: DUKE1992A

SCOPOLETIN Plant: DUKE1992A

STIGMASTEROL Plant: DUKE1992A

TERPINEN-4-OL Plant: DUKE1992A

TETRATRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A

YLANGENE Plant: DUKE1992A

References

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

ppm = parts per million; tr = trace

Fri Jul 11 05:16:45 EDT 2014

Please send questions and comments to:

James A. Duke
Green Farmacy Garden
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759

or Mary Jo Bogenschutz (E-Mail: godwinm001@hawaii.rr.com)

Dr. Duke does not recommend self diagnosis or self medication.

Please see the disclaimer for more information.

Dr. Duke’s
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) — Annual Mugwort (GRIN), Annual Wormwood (GRIN), Qinghao, Sweet Annie, Sweet Wormwood (GRIN)

Chemicals

1,8-CINEOLE Leaf 2,360 – 6,600 ppm DUKE1992A (-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml

HH2; (-)-Inotropic HH2; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic M&R486; Anesthetic DUKE1992B; Anthelmintic JBH; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml JAF46:3434; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic PR14:240; Anticariogenic JNP59:823; Anticatarrh M29; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue JAR8:2; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17; Antiinflammatory EJP331:253; Antilaryngitic DUKE1992B; Antinociceptive PR14:401; Antipharyngitic DUKE1992B; Antiplaque X12537346; Antirheumatic PR14:240; Antirhinitic DUKE1992B; Antiseptic JBH; Antisinusitic PR14:240; Antispasmodic SHT158; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm JAR8:2; Antitussive; Antiulcer X11281182; Candidicide LAF337; Carcinogenic ZEB; Choleretic DUKE1992B; CNS-Stimulant DUKE1992B; Convulsant JAR8:2; Counterirritant M29; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED’95; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml EJP331:253; Dentifrice M29; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant JBH; FLavor FEMA 1-200 ARC; Fungicide SHT158; Gastroprotective X11281182; Gram(+)icide JAR8:2; Gram(-)icide JAR8:2; Hepatotonic DUKE1992B; Herbicide IC50=78 uM TOX; Hypotensive DUKE1992B; Inflammatory inj EJP331:253; Insectifuge; Irritant RIN; Myorelaxant CAN; Nematicide NIG; Neurotoxic JAR8:2; P450-Inducer MED’95; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin JAF52:2507; Perfume ARC; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Rubefacient M29; Secretogogue SHT158; Sedative; Spasmogenic JAR8:2; Surfactant SHT158; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer MED’95; Transdermal X14703969; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml FT67:279

3,3,6-TRIMETHYL-HEPTA-1,5-DIEN-4-OL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

3,5-DIHYDROXY-6,7,3′,4′-TETRAMETHOXYFLAVONE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

3-METHYL-PINOCARVONE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

6,7,3′,4′-TETRA-O-METHYL-QUERCETAGETIN Leaf: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ALPHA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 1,345 – 3,760 ppm DUKE1992A Allelochemic DUKE1992B; Allergenic M&R523; Antiacne JAR12:99; Antibacterial; Antifeedant JAF45:3276; Antiflu EMP5:195; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic X16248573; Antiseptic X16248573; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic X16248573;

Antiviral EMP5:195;

Cancer-Preventive 525;

Coleoptophile DUKE1992B; Expectorant MIK; FLavor FEMA 15-150 ARC; Herbicide IC50=30 uM TOX; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly JAF50:4576; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile JSPR22:141; Irritant JBH; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM X9242356; Perfumery ARC; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Sedative LRN-JUN90; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer LRN-JUN90; Transdermal X7199340

ARTEANNUIN-A Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEANNUIN-B Plant: DUKE1992A Antiseptic MIC=100-150 ug/ml X10865468; Candidicide MIC=100 ug/ml X10865468; Fungicide MIC=100-150 ug/ml X10865468

ARTEMISIA-ALCOHOL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEMISIA-KETONE Leaf 2,200 – 16,000 ppm DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEMISIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A Antibacterial DUKE1992B; Pesticide DUKE1992B

ARTEMISIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEMISILACTONE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEMISININ

Flower 100 – 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Leaf 100 – 5,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Antimalarial

ED50=90 mg/kg orl mus KCH

ED95=1,000 mg/man/day KCH

IC50=1.4 nM or 0.0014 uM (ED95=1,000 mg/man/day) DUKE1992B;

Antitumor; Antiviral

PS75:161;

Calcium-Antagonist IC50=190 uM gpg K29404; Cytotoxic IC50=30 uM; Herbicide IC50=33 uM 438; Immunomodulator PMP24:103; MDR-Inhibitor IC50=2 uM X11807801; Neurotoxic X9745911; Pesticide DUKE1992B;

Plasmodicide

IC50=1.4 nM OPO:98;

Schizonticide

MIC=0.1 uM JPP42:810; Teratogenic M29

ARTEMISINOL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEMISITINE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ARTEMISYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

BETA-ARTEANNUAN Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

BETA-FARNESENE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

BETA-PINENE Plant: DUKE1992A Allergenic M&R618; Antiinflammatory FT63(1):3; Antiseptic LAF; Antispasmodic; Candidicide LAF337; FLavor FEMA 15-600 ARC; Herbicide TOX; Insectifuge 382; Irritant ZEB; Perfumery ARC; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Spasmogenic CAN; Transdermal X10408241

BETA-SELINENE

Plant: DUKE1992A

Antimalarial

IC50 =>50 ug/ml RAS;

Antiplasmodial

RAS; Perfumery ARC

BETA-SITOSTEROL

Plant: DUKE1992A Androgenic DUKE1992B; Angiogenic X11988857; Anorexic MAR; Antiadenomic M11; Antiandrogenic JE28:221; Antibacterial QJC28:155;

Anticancer (Breast) PS131:95;

Anticancer (Cervix) PJB1(2):287;

Anticancer (Lung) PJB1(2):287;

Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl DFN:160; Antiestrogenic JE28:221; Antifeedant 382; Antifertility JE28:221; Antigonadotrophic JE28:221; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic JBH; Antiinflammatory;

Antileukemic PJB1(2):287;

Antilymphomic PJB1(2):287;

Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml JAFC37:1365;

Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus EMP5:363; AntioxidantIC44=10 uM JMF5:1; Antiprogestational JE28:221;

Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks FT68(4):291;

Antiprostatadenomic M11;

Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man;

Antipyretic HDN;

Antitumor (Breast) PS131:95;

Antitumor (Cervix) PJB1(2):287;

Antitumor (Lung) PJB1(2):287;

Antiviral PS75:161; Apoptotic X17350814; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667;

Cancer-Preventive 525;

Candidicide QJC28:155; Caspase-8-Inducer X17358014; Estrogenic PHM9:52; Febrifuge HDN; Gonadotrophic JE28:221; Hepatoprotective PMP23:60; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl M30 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl MAR; Hypoglycemic JE27:243; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day;

Pesticide DUKE1992B; Spermicide JE28:221; Ubiquiot JBH; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat FT63(1):3

BORNEOL Plant: DUKE1992A (-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml HH2; (-)-Inotropic HH2; Allelochemic JAF45:3276; Analgesic DUKE1992B; Antiacetylcholine CAN; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml X11559128; Antibronchitic JBH; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml X11559128; Antifeedant JAF45:3276; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B; Antiotitic X2364470; Antipyretic DUKE1992B; Antisalmonella X11559128; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml X11559128; Antiyeast X11559128; Candidicide X11559128; Choleretic X11559128; CNS-Stimulant HHB; CNS-Toxic JBH; Flavor FEMA<1 ARC; Fungicide X11559128; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B; Herbicide IC50=470 mM 438 IC50=470 uM TOX; Inhalant JBH; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B; Insectifuge 382; Irritant RIN; Myorelaxant CAN; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183; Perfumery JBH; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Sedative MED; Tranquilizer X11559128

CAMPHENE Plant: DUKE1992A Allelopathic CWW; Antilithic? JBH; Antioxidant JA6(4):33; Expectorant HH2; FLavor FEMA 15-175 ARC; Hypocholesterolemic? JBH; Insectifuge 382; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Spasmogenic FT59:465

CAMPHENE-HYDRATE Leaf 1,000 – 2,820 ppm DUKE1992A No activity reported.

CAMPHOR Leaf 1,720 – 6,460 ppm DUKE1992A Allelopathic; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiacne NIG; Antidiarrheic 500 ug/ml WO2; Antidysenteric WO2; Antiemetic 100-200 mg man orl KCH; Antifeedant IC50=5,000 ppm diet 438; Antifibrositic MAR; Antineuralgic MAR; Antipruritic M11; Antiseptic M11; Antispasmodic ED50=0.075 mg/ml FT59:465;

Cancer-Preventive 525;

Carminative JPP46:16; CNS-Stimulant JE26:74; Convulsant RJH; Cosmetic JBH; Counterirritant MAR; Decongestant NIG; Deliriant M11; Ecbolic DUKE1992B; Emetic DUKE1992B; Epileptigenic CAN; Expectorant M29; Fungicide ED50 = 2.7 mM TOX; Herbicide IC50=3.3-180 mM 438; Insect-Repellent DUKE1992B; Insectifuge; Irritant JBH; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183; Occuloirritant M&R367; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=7.89 uM X9242356; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Respirainhibitor M11; Respirastimulant KCH; Rubefacient; Stimulant RJH; Transdermal; Verrucolytic NIG; Vibriocide 500 ug/ml WO2

CAPILLENE Plant 80 ppm; DUKE1992A No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A Antiedemic CPB38:2283; Antifeedant ISA14:93; Antiinflammatory CPB38:2283;

Antitumor JNP55:999; Calcium-Antagonist ED50=32 uMgpg J14432;

Fungicide; Insecticide ISA14:93; Pesticide DUKE1992B

COUMARIN Plant: DUKE1992A Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cow (weak activity, 11% inhibition) CPB43:1385; Allelochemic IC100=2 mM 438; Analgesic ZEB; Anesthetic EB30:103; Antiaggregant DUKE1992B; Antiandrogenic PM56(6):671;

Antibrucellosic JPP42:194;

Anticancer (Kidney) 400-7,000 mg/day MAB;

Anticancer (Prostate) MAB;

Antidiuretic CAN117; Antiedemic CPB38:2283; AntiesherichicJBH; Antiinflammatory CPB38:2283; Antilymphedemic MAB;

Antimelanomic 50 mg/day;

Antimetastatic 50 mg/man/day MAB;

Antimitotic IJP33:7; Antimononuccleotic MAB; Antimutagenic EMP6:235; Antimycoplasmotic MAB; Antipsittacotic MAB; Antipsoriac IJP33:7; Antitoxoplasmotic MAB;

Antitumor 50 mg/day;

Antitumor (GI) JAR9(4):182;

Antitumor (Kidney) 400-7,000 mg/dayMAB;

Antitumor (Prostate) MAB; Bacteristat JBH; Bruchiphobe DUKE1992B;

Cancer-Preventive 5-25 ug/ml PM1987:526;

Carcinogenic 200 mg/kg orl mus MAB; Cardiodepressant; Cardiotonic FEL; Chemopreventive JAR9(4):182; DME-Inhibitor IC50=57.5 uM ACM:134; Emetic DUKE1992B; Estrogenic CAN; Fungicide JBH; Hemorrhagic JBH; Hepatotoxic 0.8-1.71 mM/kg orl rat 100 mg/kg dog ARO95:21 2,500 ppm diet ARO95:21; Hypnotic EB44:68.1990; Hypoglycemic 250-1,000 mg/kg orl EMP6:165; Immunostimulant; Juvabional 382; Larvistat JBH; Lymphocytogenic 100 mg/day JPP42:194; Lymphokinetic PH2; Narcotic FEL; Ovicide DUKE1992B; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Phagocytotic PM56(6):671; Piscicide JBH; Respirodepressant EB30:103; Rodenticide JBH; Sedative EB44:68.1990

CUMINALDEHYDE Leaf: DUKE1992A Antibacterial DUKE1992B; FLavor FEMA <1 ARC; Fungicide FT62:86; Irritant ZEB; Larvicide AYL; Perfumery JBH; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Sedative ZEB; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.05 mM JAF47:4574; Ulcerogenic ZEB

DELTA-CADINENE Plant: DUKE1992A Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor PJB1(3):238; Antiacne PJB1(3):238; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml JAF41:1103; Anticariogenic JAF41:1103; Antistreptococcic PJB1(3):238; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer MED’95; P450-Inducer MED’95; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Testosterone-Inducer MED’95

DEOXYARTEMISININ Plant: DUKE1992A Antiviral PS75:161; Pesticide DUKE1992B

EO Leaf 8,400 – 23,500 ppm DUKE1992A No activity reported.

GAMMA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

HENTRIACONTANYLTRIACONTANOATE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

HUMULENE

Plant: DUKE1992A Antimalarial IC50=86 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial

ISOARTEMISIA-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ISOARTEMISIA-ALCOHOL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

ISOARTEMISIA-KETONE Plant 3,400 ppm; DUKE1992A No activity reported.

MENTHOL Plant: DUKE1992A Allergenic M29; Analgesic MAR; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm JPP46:16; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM JAF45:677; Antiaggregant IC50=750 TR42:511; Antiallergic JFH33(6):569; Antiasthmatic MAB; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic MAR; Antidandruff ALH; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml X12083863; Antihalitosic AH12(4):17; Antihistaminic JFH33(6):569; Antiinflammatory MAR; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic MAR; Antipruritic JPP46:16; Antipyretic PJB1(1):180; Antirheumatic MAR; Antisalmonella X12083863; Antiseptic 4 x phenol W&W; Antisinusitic MAR; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml FT59:465; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml X12083863; Antitartar X12537346; Antivaginitic FEL; Antivulvitic FEL; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman MAR; Bronchomucolytic ACM:200; Bronchomucotropic JPP46:16; Bronchorrheic ACM:200; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml X12083863; Carminative JPP46:16; Choleretic X1242658; Ciliotoxic JPP46:16; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B; CNS-Stimulant KCH; Congestant JPP46:16; Convulsant RJH; Counterirritant DUKE1992B; Decongestant? 11 mg/man JPP42:652; Dermatitigenic M&R654; DiaphoreticKCH; Enterorelaxant JAR4:22; Expectorant JPP46:16; Gastrosedative M11; Irritant JPP46:16; Myorelaxant M29; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183; Neurodepressant JPP46:16; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat JPP46:16; Nociceptive JPP46:16; Perfumery M11; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Refrigerant JPP46:16; Rubefacient DUKE1992B; Termiticide 382; Transdermal X14703969; Vibriocide DUKE1992B

METHYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A FLavor FEMA 1-30 ARC; Perfumery ARC; Trypsin-Enhancer CAN

MYRCENOL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

NONACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

O-CYMENE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

OCIMENE Plant: DUKE1992A Insecticide LAF; Perfumery ARC

OCTACOSANOL Plant: DUKE1992A Androgenic LRN-APR88; Antiparkinsonian 1-15 mg day; Antiviral PS75:161; Hypocholesterolemic PED; Hypolipidemic DUKE1992B; Stimulant 2.2 mg/kg orl gpg LRN-APR88

P-CYMENE Plant: DUKE1992A Analgesic MAR; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM JAF45:677; Antibacillary X10826719; Antibacterial JE26:74; Antiflu DUKE1992B; Antirheumatalgic MAR; Antiviral DUKE1992B; Flavor FEMA 12-250 ARC; Fungicide TOX; Herbicide IC50=50 uM TOX; Insectifuge HH3; Irritant ZEB; Laxative ZEB; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Sedative ZEB; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/mlFT67:279

PINOCARVEOL Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

PINOCARVYL-ACETATE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

QINGHAOSU-IV Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

QUERCETAGETIN-6,7,3′,4′-TETRAMETHYLETHER

Plant: DUKE1992A

Antitumor WO3;

Cytotoxic WO3

QUERCETAGETIN-6,7,4′-TRIMETHYLETHER Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

SCOPOLETIN

Plant: DUKE1992A Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438; Analgesic PM56(6):595; Anesthetic HDN; Antiadrenergic HDN; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B; Antibacterial JBH; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B; Antifeedant 382; Antihepatotoxic BIS; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595;

Antimutagenic MAB;

Antioxidant PH2;

Antiproliferant X11749777; Antiprostaglandin RWG27; Antiseptic FT1990:503; Antispasmodic;

Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B;

Apoptotic X11749777; Bronchorelaxant KCH;

Cancer-Preventive 525;

Cholagogue WIC; Choleretic KCH; CNS-Depressant KCH; CNS-Stimulant WBB; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS’96; Hepatoprotective WIC; Herbicide JBH; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966; Musculotropic WIC; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789; Phytohormonal JBH; Uterosedative 411

STIGMASTEROL

Plant: DUKE1992A Antihepatotoxic DUKE1992B; Antiinflammatory LRN1995; Antinociceptive PR14:401; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus EMP5:363; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM JMF5:1; Antiviral PS75:161; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm PC29(5):1667;

Cancer-Preventive 525;

Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic NIG; Ovulant DUKE1992B; Sedative PM6:499.1986 TERPINEN-4-OL Plant: DUKE1992A Allelopathic CWW; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM JAF45:677; Antiacne JAR12:99; Antiallergic DUKE1992B; Antiasthmatic CJT4:203.1982; Antibacterial; Antioxidant PR14:623; Antiseptic FFJ9:129; Antispasmodic PR14:623; Antitussive CJT; Antiulcer X10823671; Bacteriostatic CJT; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide DUKE1992B; Herbicide IC50=200 mM 438 IC50=22 uMTOX; Insectifuge DUKE1992B; Irritant CAN; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml SZ44:183; Pesticide DUKE1992B; Renoirritant CAN; Spermicide ED100=0.015 AHN188:83.1986; Vulnerary LRN-JAN91

TETRATRIACONTANE Plant: DUKE1992A No activity reported.

YLANGENE Plant: DUKE1992A Perfumery DUKE1992B

References

382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990. 411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989. 438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp. 525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp. ACM:134: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 134. ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200. AH12(4):17: American Health, 12(4): 17, 1993. AHN188:83.1986: Jim Duke’s personal files ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp. ARC: Aloe Research Council – Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect. ARO95:21: Jim Duke’s personal files AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980. BIOSIS’96: Jim Duke’s personal files BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989). CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine – A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp. CAN117: Jim Duke’s personal files CJT: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis. CJT4:203.1982: Chin. J. Tuber. Respir. Dis., 4:203, 1982. CPB38:2283: Shimizu,*M., et al. 1990. Anti-inflammatory Constituents of Topically Applied Crude Drugs. IV.1) Constituents and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Paraguayan Crude Drug „Alhucema“ (Lavandula latifolia Vill.)2). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2283-2284, 1990. CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387 CWW: Wright,C.W.(Ed)2002.Medicinal&Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles.Artemisia.344pp.Maffei,M.(Ed)2002.Vetiveria.The Genus Vetiveria.Taylor&Francis.NY,NY.191pp.Southwell,I.,Lowe,R.(Eds)1999.Tea Tree.The Genus Melaleuca.Harwood Acad.Pub.Amsterdam,Netherlands. DFN:160: Jim Duke’s personal files DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press. DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press. EB30:103: Jim Duke’s personal files EB44:68.1990: Schultes, R.E. De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale Commentationes XXXVI. Justicia (Acanthaceae) as a Source of an Hallucinogenic Snuff. Economic Botany 44(1): 61-70, 1990. EJP331:253: Jim Duke’s personal files EMP5:195: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 195. EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363. EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165 EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235. FEL: Jim Duke’s personal files FFJ9:129: Flav. & Frag. J. 9: 129. FT1990:503: Jim Duke’s personal files FT59:465: Fitoterapia No.59-1984. FT62:86: Singh*, G., Upadhyay, R.K. 1990. Fungitoxic Activity of Cumaldehyde, Main Constituent of the Cuminum cyminum Oil. Fitoterapia 62(1): 86, 1991. FT63(1):3: Jim Duke’s personal files FT67:279: Jim Duke’s personal files FT68(4):291: Jim Duke’s personal files HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany – Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp. HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager’s Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. HH3: Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager’s Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager’s Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979. IJP33:7: Pandeya, S.N. 1970. Biological Activity of Adamantyl Derivatives. The Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 33: 7. ISA14:93: Bettarini, F., Borgonovi, G.E., et al. 1991. Antiparasitic Compounds from East African Plants: Isolation and Biological Activity of Anonaine, Matricarianol, Canthin-6-One and Caryophyllene Oxide. Insect Sci. Applic. 14(1): 93-99, 1993. J14432: Jim Duke’s personal files JA6(4):33: Jim Duke’s personal files. JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105. JAF45:3276: Jim Duke’s personal files JAF45:677: Jim Duke’s personal files JAF46:3434: Jim Duke’s personal files JAF47:4574: Jim Duke’s personal files JAF50:4576: Jim Duke’s personal files JAF52:2507: Jim Duke’s personal files JAFC37:1365: Jim Duke’s personal files JAR12:99: Jim Duke’s personal files JAR4:22: J. Aromatherapy 4: 22. JAR8:2: Jim Duke’s personal files JAR9(4):182: Jim Duke’s personal files JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp. JE26:74: Jim Duke’s personal files JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989. JE28:221: Malini, T. and Vanithakumari, G. 1989. Rat Toxicity Studies With B-Sitosterol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28: 221-234, 1990. JFH33(6):569: J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569. JMF5:1: Jim Duke’s personal files JNP55:999: Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992. JNP59:823: Jim Duke’s personal files JPP42:194: Gawron, A., Gorski*, G., Glowniak**, K. 1989. Increased proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human leucocytes after 8-methoxypsoralen treatment. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 194-195, 1990. JPP42:652: Eccles, R., et al. 1989. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 652-654, 1990. JPP42:810: Jim Duke’s personal files JPP46:16: Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994. JSPR22:141: J. Stored. Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986. K29404: Jim Duke’s personal files KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp. LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp. LAF337: Jim Duke’s personal files LRN-APR88: Jim Duke’s personal files LRN-JAN91: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-91. LRN-JUN90: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jun-90. LRN1995: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, 1995 M&R367: Jim Duke’s personal files M&R486: Jim Duke’s personal files M&R523: Jim Duke’s personal files M&R618: Jim Duke’s personal files M&R654: Jim Duke’s personal files M11: Merck 11th Edition M29: Martindale’s 29th M30: Martindale’s 30th MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh. MAR: Martindale’s 28th MED: Medline (post 1990 searches filed in my computer) MED’95: Jim Duke’s personal files MIK: Michael Castleman 1991. The Healing Herbs. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 436 pp. NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp. OPO:98: Jim Duke’s personal files PC29(5):1667: Jung, J.H., Pummangura, S., Chaichantipyuth, c., Patarapanich, C., and McLaughlin, J.L. 1989. Bioactive Constituents of Melodorum fruticosum. Phytochemistry. 29(5): 1667-1670. 1990. PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke’s personal files PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB. PH2: Jim Duke’s personal files PHM9:52: Jim Duke’s personal files PJB1(1):180: Jim Duke’s personal files PJB1(2):287: Jim Duke’s personal files PJB1(3):238: Jim Duke’s personal files PM1987:526: Gawron, A. and Glowniak, K. 1987. Cytostatic Activity of Coumarins in vitro. Planta Medica 1987: 526. PM56(6):504: Jim Duke’s personal files PM56(6):595: Jim Duke’s personal files PM56(6):671: Planta Medica, 56(6): 671, 1990. PM6:499.1986: Jim Duke’s personal files PMP23:60: Jim Duke’s personal files PMP24:103: Jim Duke’s personal files PR14:240: Jim Duke’s personal files PR14:401: Jim Duke’s personal files PR14:623: Jim Duke’s personal files PS131:95: Madhavi, D. L., Bomser, J., Smith, M., Singletary, K. 1998. Isolation of Bioactive Constituents from Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruits and Cell Cultures. Plant Sci., 131(1): 95-103. PS75:161: Abid Ali Khan, M.M., Jain, D.C., Bhakuni, R.S., Zaim, M., and Thakur, R.S. 1991. Occurrence of some antiviral sterols in Artemisia annua. Plant Science, 75: 161-165, 1991. QJC28:155: Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 155. RAS: Rukunga, G. and Simons, A. J. 2006. The Potential of Plants as a Source of Antimalarial Agents – A Review. Africa Herbal Antimalaria Meeting. PlantaPhile Publications, Berlin. 72 pp. RIN: Rinzler, C. A. 1990. The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments. Facts on File, New York. 199 pp. RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R. RWG27: Jim Duke’s personal files SHT158: Jim Duke’s personal files SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183. TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp. TR42:511: Jim Duke’s personal files W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176) WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp. WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp. WO2: Wealth of India. WO3: Jim Duke’s personal files X10408241: Jim Duke’s personal files X10823671: Jim Duke’s personal files X10826719: Jim Duke’s personal files X10865468: Jim Duke’s personal files X11281182: Jim Duke’s personal files X11559128: Jim Duke’s personal files X11575966: Jim Duke’s personal files X11714299: Jim Duke’s personal files X11749777: Jim Duke’s personal files X11807801: Jim Duke’s personal files X11988857: Jim Duke’s personal files X12083863: Jim Duke’s personal files X1242658: Jim Duke’s personal files X12537346: Jim Duke’s personal files X14703969: Jim Duke’s personal files X16248573: Jim Duke’s personal files X17350814: Jim Duke’s personal files X17358014: Jim Duke’s personal files X2364470: Jim Duke’s personal files X7199340: Jim Duke’s personal files X9242356: Jim Duke’s personal files X9745911: Jim Duke’s personal files ZEB: Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.

ppm = parts; per million
tr = trace

Fri Jul 11 05:25:59 EDT 2014

Please send questions and comments to:

James A. Duke
Green Farmacy Garden
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759

or Mary Jo Bogenschutz (E-Mail: godwinm001@hawaii.rr.com)

Dr. Duke does not recommend self diagnosis or self medication. Please see the disclaimer for more information.

© All rights reserved

James A. Duke

Green Farmacy Garden,

8210 Murphy Road

Fulton, MD 20759

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

Disclaimer

WARNING:

Do not consult these databases unless you agree not to hold the compilers or host liable for any errors or omissions. Data were gathered rather randomly from the literature on economic plants, none of which will ever be completely known phytochemically. These data were compiled by human beings, mostly Jim Duke and Stephen Beckstrom-Sternberg, from published, or rarely, personally communicated sources by human beings.

To err is human! For any serious studies, values, especially deviant values, need to be rechecked with original sources. The compilers do not recommend self diagnosis or self medication; the compilers do urge serious studies of herbal alternatives, believing that in many cases, the herbal alternative may contain several synergistic compounds that will, in fact, do what empirical trials have suggested, as recorded in the folklore (See ETHNOBOTANY database).

Where these biologically active compounds occur in the edible portions of long established food species, we could be dealing with promising „food farmacy“ alternatives. Synergies often double the rates of biological activities, but sometimes increase them an order of magnitude or two or more. Plants usually contain synergistic suites of phytoprotective chemicals which are often responsible for their medicinal uses as well.

Evolution would favor synergies and disfavor antagonisms in such suites of compounds. If we have learned anything in the preparation of this database, it is that the levels of biologically active compounds vary widely, often one or two, sometimes more orders of magnitude. An increase in one compound from a suite of compounds is usually compensated for by a decrease in another compound(s). All plants, like all animals, contain toxins and carcinogens. Even commonly ingested food plants, like peanuts, can be fatally allergic to sensitive people.

Jim Duke
Green Farmacy Garden
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759

Written – 29 March 1995
Last updated – 13 June 1996

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